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African-Americans in the Thirteen Colonies (Cornerstones of Freedom)

More Information at African-American in the Thirteen Colonies in Depth

What I Learned Section 1 -- Answer the Following Questions:
1. Who was the first African-American doctor to practice in the American colonies?

James Derham.
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2. What year did the Boston Massacre occur?
1770.
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3. What happened on July 4, 1776?
The Declaration of Independence was approved by the Continental Congress in Philadelphia.
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4. True or False: About 5,000 African-Americans fought in the American Revolution.
True.
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5. What year did Vermont prohibit slavery?
1777.
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What I Learned Section 2 -- Define the following words:
Bondage: Slavery; the state of being held or controlled against one's will
Chattel: Piece of personal property
Indentured Servant: Person who legally bound himself or herself to work for a master for a period of time
Insurrection: Revolt against a ruling organization
Passive Resistance: Nonviolent act of defiance toward authority, such as slaves stopping work to protest an overseer's cruel treatment
Stamp Act: Tax placed on the American colonies by Britain in 1765

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Bonus Questions (Answer 1 of the Following Questions for Your FREE Bookmark):
a. Describe a slave's capture in Africa and journey to America.
Answers will vary. Read more

b. Name ONE African-American mentioned in this book and describe one of his or her accomplishments.
Estéban
Anthony Johnson
Mathias Sousa
Onesiums
James Derham
Benjamin Banneker
Phillis Wheatley
Samuel Fraunces
Emmanuel and Mary Bernoon
Jean Baptiste Pointe du Sable
Crispus Attucks
Elizabeth Freeman
Salem Poor
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c. Describe how African-Americans were treated in the Thirteen Colonies.
Answers will vary.
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d. Use five of the words in Section 2 in a sentence.
Answers will vary.
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e. Have a parent or friend give you a spelling test with EACH of the words in Section 2.

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More Valuable Information about African-Americans in the Thirteen Colonies:
African-American Mosaic: Abolition (Library of Congress)
The African-American World (PBS)
Encyclopedia Britannica Guide to Black History
World Book Encyclopedia: The African American Journey

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African-Americans in the Old West (Cornerstones of Freedom)

More Information at African-American in the Old West in Depth

What I Learned Section 1 -- Answer the Following Questions:
1. In 1865, how many western states were part of the United States?

Five.
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2. True or False: African-Americans were cattle ranchers in Texas.
True.
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3. Name and describe ONE of the jobs African-Americans performed in the Old West.
Cattle Rancher or Cowboy
Settler or Farmer
Railroad Worker
Teamster
Stagecoach Driver
Homesteader
Soldier
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4. What year did President Abraham Lincoln sign the Homestead Act?
1862.
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5. Who gave the 10th Cavalry the nickname Buffalo Soldiers?
The Cheyenne.
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What I Learned Section 2 -- Define the following words:
Barracks: Building where soldiers live
Scout: Someone sent to find out and bring back information
Stampede: Sudden scattering of cattle or horses in fright
Territory: Part of the United States not yet admitted as a state
Tracker: Person who follows the marks or prints left behind by a moving person or animal
Treason: The crime of betraying your country by spying for another country or by helping an enemy during war
Veteran: Someone who has served in the armed forces, especially during a war

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Bonus Questions (Answer 1 of the Following Questions for Your FREE Bookmark):
a. Name an African-American mentioned in this book and describe one of his or her accomplishments.
York
James Beckwourth
Al Jones
Nat Love
Bill Pickett
Toby and Govie
Mary Fields
Henry O. Flipper
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b. Describe how African-Americans were treated in the Old West.
Answers will vary.
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c. Use five of the words in Section 2 in a sentence.
Answers will vary.
Read more

d. Have a parent or friend give you a spelling test with EACH of the words in Section 2.

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More Valuable Information about African-Americans in the Old West:
African-American Mosaic: Migrations (Library of Congress)
African-Americans & the Old West (Long Island University)
Buffalo Soldiers on the Western Frontier
The African-American World (PBS)
Encyclopedia Britannica Guide to Black History
World Book Encyclopedia: The African American Journey

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Jackie Robinson Breaks the Color Line (Cornerstones of Freedom)

More Information at Jackie Robinson Breaks the Color Line in Depth

What I Learned Section 1 -- Answer the Following Questions:
1. When was Jackie Robinson born?

January 31, 1919.
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2. True or False: Jackie Robinson was the first person to letter in four sports at UCLA.
True.
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3. What year did the Negro National League begin playing baseball?
1920.
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4. What did Jackie Robinson do on April 10, 1947?
He became the first African-American baseball player in Major League Baseball and changed the history of baseball. Read
more

5. What was Jackie Robinson's connection with Chock Full o' Nuts, the NAACP, and New York's Freedom National Bank?
Jackie Robinson was the Vice President of Community Relations for Chock Full o' Nuts, he raised funds for the NAACP, and he helped launch New York's Freedom National Bank.
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What I Learned Section 2 -- Define the following words:
Color Line: Policy forbidding African-Americans from playing professional baseball with white players
Commissioner: Head of an organization; the commissioner of baseball oversees all baseball players and team owners
Executive: An important business person; a baseball executive (a team president or general manager) is a non-player who helps make decisions for a team
Kansas City Monarchs: Legendary team for the Negro National League
NAACP: National Association for the Advancement of Colored People; organization working to secure and protect the rights of African-Americans
Negro Leagues: Baseball leagues operating from the 1920's to the 1950's in which African-Americans and Latinos played professional baseball
Varsity Letter: Honor given to athletes who compete in sports in high school and college

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Bonus Questions (Answer 1 of the Following Questions for Your FREE Bookmark):
a. Name an African-American or Latino mentioned in this book and describe one of his or her accomplishments.
Jackie Robinson
Josh Gibson
Larry Doby
Roy Campanella
Minnie Minoso
Willie Mays
Ernie Banks
Henry Aaron
Frank Robinson
Chuck Cooper
Althea Gibson
Arthur Ashe
Rosa Parks
Martin Luther King, Jr.
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b. Describe how African-Americans were treated in baseball in the United States.
Answers will vary.
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c. How were other sports affected by Jackie Robinson's breaking of the color line in baseball?
Jackie Robinson's presence on the baseball diamond helped break down the barriers in other sports.
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d. Describe any of the events of the Civil Right Movement occurring in the 1950's and 1960's.
Brown v. Board of Education (1954)
Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955-1956)
Civil Rights Act of 1964
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e. Use five of the words in Section 2 in a sentence.
Answers will vary.
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f. Have a parent or friend give you a spelling test with EACH of the words in Section 2.

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More Valuable Information about Jackie Robinson:
The Jackie Robinson Foundation
Baseball, the Color Line, & Jackie Robinson (Library of Congress)
Jackie Robinson & Other Baseball Highlights, 1860's-1960's (Library of Congress)
Jackie Robinson: Civil Rights Advocate (National Archives)
Jackie Robinson: National Baseball Hall of Fame
Jackie Robinson: A Baseball Celebration (New York Times)
Jackie Robinson: Soul of the Game (Sporting News)
Jackie Robinson: TIME 100 Heroes & Icons
Jackie Robinson's Baseball Stats (CNN/SI)

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Civil Rights Marches (Cornerstones of Freedom)

More Information at Civil Rights Marches in Depth

What I Learned Section 1 -- Answer the Following Questions:
1. What year did the Supreme Court end segregation in public schools?

1954.
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2. Name ONE person who influenced Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Jesus, Henry David Thoreau, and Mahatma Gandhi.
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3. True or False: Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. followed the philosophy of nonviolent civil disobedience in his approach to improving civil rights.
True.
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4. Describe the importance of ONE of the following cities:
Montgomery, Alabama
Washington, D.C.
Birmingham, Alabama
Selma, Alabama
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5. Describe ONE of the following events or groups:
Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955-1956)
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
Prayer Pilgrimage for Freedom (1957)
Civil Rights Commission
Freedom Rides of 1961
March on Washington (1963)
Civil Rights Act of 1964
The March from Selma to Montgomery (1965)
Voting Rights Act of 1965
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What I Learned Section 2 -- Define the following words:
Boycott: To refuse to buy something or take part in something as a way of protesting
Civil Disobedience: Passive resistance to an unfair or unjust law
Civil Rights: Individual rights that all members of a society have to freedom and equal treatment under the law
Democracy: Way of governing a country in which the people choose their leaders in elections
Desegregation: Ending the practice of separating people of different races in schools, restaurants, and other public places
Oppression: Being treated in a cruel, unjust, and harsh way

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Bonus Questions (Answer 1 of the Following Questions for Your FREE Bookmark):
a. Cite ONE of the quotes by Civil Rights Leader Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
"Even though we face the difficulties of today and tomorrow, I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream. I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed, 'We hold these truths to be self-evident that all men are created equal.'...And when we allow freedom to ring from every village, from every hamlet, from every state and every city, we will be able to join hands and sing...'Free at last, free at last. Thank God Almighty, we're free at last!'" -- The end of King's speech at the March on Washington on August 28, 1963.
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b. Name an African-American mentioned in this book and describe one of his or her accomplishments.
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
A. Philip Randolph
Ralph Abernathy
Hosea Williams
John Lewis
Coretta Scott King
Roy Wilkins
Tom Mboya
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c. Describe how African-Americans were treated in the 1950's and 1960's in the United States.
Answers will vary.
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d. Name the Presidents of the United States in the 1950's and 1960's.
Harry S. Truman (1945-1953)
Dwight D. Eisenhower (1953-1961)
John F. Kennedy (1961-1963)
Lyndon B. Johnson (1963-1969)
Richard M. Nixon (1968-1974)
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e. Use five of the words in Section 2 in a sentence.
Answers will vary.
Read more

f. Have a parent or friend give you a spelling test with EACH of the words in Section 2.

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More Valuable Information about the Civil Rights Marches:
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
National Civil Rights Museum
Martin Luther King, Jr. & the Civil Rights Movement Photo Gallery (Seattle Times)
The African-American World (PBS)
Encyclopedia Britannica Guide to Black History
World Book Encyclopedia: The African American Journey

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