A Picture Book of Harriet Tubman

What I Learned Section 1 -- Answer the Following Questions:
1. When was Harriet Tubman born?

In 1820, the exact date is unknown. Harriet Tubman was born into slavery in a one-room log hut on a large plantation in Dorchester County, Maryland, in 1820. Her mother was Harriet Green, and her father was Benjamin Ross. Harriet had ten brothers and sisters. She was the sixth oldest. In 1844, Harriet married John Tubman. John was a free African-American.

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2. True or False: Harriet Tubman escaped from slavery by traveling the Underground Railroad.
True. In 1849, Harriet Tubman and three of her brothers decided to escape north. Her brothers, however, turned back, and they made Harriet return with them. Two nights later, Harriet escaped by herself. She later commented, "I had a right to liberty or death. If I could not have one, I would have the other." Harriet escaped by traveling from one safe house to another along the Underground Railroad. Harriet traveled by night and hid during the day. At each stop along the Underground Railroad, Harriet was directed from safe house to safe house. And with each stop Harriet traveled farther north and closer to freedom. Finally, Harriet reached the free state of Pennsylvania.

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3. How did Harriet Tubman help the Underground Railroad?
She was a conductor on the Underground Railroad. From 1850 to 1860, after Harriet Tubman escaped from slavery, she worked hard as a cook, dish washer, and cleaning woman. She used the money she earned to help other slaves escape. Harriet disguised herself as an old woman or as a man, and she used coded songs to tell the fugitive slaves when it was safe to come out. There was even a reward for $40,000 for the capture of Harriet Tubman, but she was never caught. In all, Harriet helped about 300 slaves, including her relatives, gain their freedom. As a conductor on the Underground Railroad, Harriet stated, "I never ran my train off the track. I never lost a passenger."

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4. True or False: Harriet Tubman was known as "Moses."
True. Harriet Tubman was known as "Moses" because she led her people out of slavery.

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5. How did Harriet Tubman help the North during the Civil War?
Harriet Tubman was a nurse and a spy for the Northern (Union) Army.
In November, 1860, Abraham Lincoln was elected president. By the time Lincoln was sworn in as president in March, 1861, eleven southern states had seceded from the Union. These states did not like Lincoln because they thought Lincoln would end slavery. The Civil War began on April 12, 1861. Harriet helped the Northern Army by leading hundreds of slaves to freedom and caring for the wounded. After the Civil War, Harriet returned home to Auburn, New York. Her husband, John, died in 1867. Harriet remarried Nelson Davis in 1869. Davis died in 1888. Harriet then opened the Harriet Tubman Home for Aged and Indigent Negroes in 1908, in Auburn, New York. Harriet died in Auburn on March 10, 1913. She was 93 years old.

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What I Learned Section 2 -- Define the following words:
Abolitionist: A person against slavery

Underground Railroad: A series of safe houses for runaway slaves on their way north to freedom

Civil War: The war between the North (Union) and the South (Confederacy) which lasted from 1861 to 1865; one of the factors leading up to the Civil War was the issue of slavery

Thirteenth Amendment: An Amendment to the U.S. Constitution which abolishes slavery in the United States

Ratify: Approve

Suffragist Movement: The fight for the right of women to vote in the United States

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Bonus Questions (Answer 1 of the Following Questions for Your FREE Bookmark):
a. Describe Harriet Tubman's life as a slave.
Harriet Tubman's mother and father were slaves owned by Edward Brodas. When Harriet was born, she was also owned by Edward Brodas. Slaves were not free. They worked all day for no money. They were beaten for many reasons including not working hard enough or not doing what they were told. One time, Harriet was whipped for eating a lump of sugar. Two of Harriet's sisters were sold to plantation owners farther south. In 1835, a slave owner threw a metal weight at a runaway slave, and the weight hit Harriet in the head almost killing her. She suffered from severe headaches and sleeping spells for the next eighty years as a result of her wound.

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b. Who was Nat Turner?
Nat Turner (1800-1831) was a slave who started a rebellion against slave owners in 1831. Many slave owners, their wives, and their children were killed. Nat Turner was caught and hanged.

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c. What year was the Thirteenth Amendment ratified?
1865. The Thirteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution abolishes slavery in the United States. It was proposed by the Congress on January 31, 1865, and ratified by three-fourths of the states on December 6, 1865. Section 1 states, "Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction."

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d. Use five of the words in Section 2 in a sentence.
Answers will vary. Here are sample sentences from our young readers:
Frederick Douglass was an abolitionist and published the anti-slavery newspaper,
The North Star.

Harriet Tubman was a conductor on the Underground Railroad, and she helped lead runaway slaves to freedom.

Abraham Lincoln was president during the Civil War.

I studied the Thirteenth Amendment in school when I studied about the Civil War.

Three-fourths of the states must ratify an amendment before it becomes part of the U.S. Constitution.

Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Stanton were leaders during the Suffragist Movement.

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e. Have a parent or friend give you a spelling test with EACH of the words in Section 2.

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More Valuable Information about Harriet Tubman:
Harriet Tubman Home
Boston African American NHS: Harriet Tubman
National Women's Hall of Fame: Harriet Tubman
Harriet Tubman & the Underground Railroad w/ QUIZ
Harriet Tubman Home for the Aged

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