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Subject for March, 2003: American Trails
Natchez Trace  |  Santa Fe Trail  |   Oregon Trail  |  Chisholm Trail

 

The Natchez Trace (Cornerstones of Freedom)

More Information at Natchez Trace in Depth

What I Learned Section 1 -- Answer the Following Questions:
1. The Natchez Trace runs between which two locations?
a) Nashville and Natchez
b) Missouri and New Mexico
c) Missouri and Oregon
d) San Antonio and Abilene
a) Nashville and Natchez. Read more

2. Is the Natchez Trace located east or west of the Mississippi River?
East of the Mississippi River.
Read more

3. True or False: In 1783, the United States gained control of Natchez, Mississippi, after defeating Britain in the American Revolution.
True.
Read more

4. How long is the Natchez Trace (in miles or kilometers)?
450 miles or 724 kilometers.
Read more

5. What year did the entire path become known as "The Natchez Trace?"
1826.
Read more

6. True or False: The Natchez Trace was used as a postal route.
True.
Read more

7. Which of the following inventions decreased the importance of travel on the Natchez Trace in 1812?
a) Light Bulb; b) Steam Engine; c) Cotton Gin; d) Airplane

b) Steam Engine.
Read more

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What I Learned Section 2 -- Define the following words:
Depot: A place where people store or sell supplies

Dispatch: An important official government message

Ford: (noun) The place where a river or stream is crossed; (verb) to cross a river or stream

Port: A town that has a harbor for ships taking on or delivering cargo

Stand: A place where travelers could eat and rest

Territory: Part of the United States that is not yet admitted as a state

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Bonus Questions (Answer 1 of the Following Questions for Your FREE Bookmark):
a. Name ONE of the other names for which the Natchez Trace is known.
"The Path to the Choctaw Nation," "The Choctaw-Chickasaw Trail," "The Chickasaw Trace," "The Natchez Road," and "The Nashville Road."
Read more

b. Describe the importance of stands along the Natchez Trace.
Stands gave people a place to eat and rest.
Read more

c. What is the Natchez Trace Parkway?
It is a scenic highway from Natchez to Nashville.
Read more

d. Describe ONE of the following people or groups of people:
Hernando de Soto
Father Jacques Marquette and Trapper Louis Joliet
René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle
Winthrop Sargent
John Adams
Thomas Jefferson
Francis Baily
Louis Le Fleur
Andrew Jackson
Timothy Pickering
General James Wilkinson
John L. Swaney
Lorenzo Dow
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Answers may vary.
Read more

e. Describe the trip made be Francis Baily and his party in 1797.
Answers may vary.
Read more

f. Use five of the words in Section 2 in a sentence.
Answers may vary.
Read more

g. Have a parent or friend give you a spelling test with EACH of the words in Section 2.

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More Valuable Information about The Natchez Trace:
Natchez Trace Parkway (NPS)
Natchez National Historical Park (NPS)
Natchez Trace National Scenic Trail (NPS)
Natchez Trace Parkway
Natchez Trace Compact

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The Santa Fe Trail (Cornerstons of Freedom)

More Information at Santa Fe Trail in Depth

What I Learned Section 1 -- Answer the Following Questions:
1. The Santa Fe Trail runs between which two locations?
a) Nashville and Natchez
b) Missouri and New Mexico
c) Missouri and Oregon
d) San Antonio and Abilene

b) Missouri and New Mexico.
Read more

2. What year did the Santa Fe Trail open?
1822.
Read more

3. How long is the Santa Fe Trail (in miles or kilometers)?
About 780 miles or 1,260 kilometers.
Read more

4. True or False: The Santa Fe Trail has a Mountain Route and a Desert Route.
True.
Read more

5. Which of the following events led to the closure of the Santa Fe Trail in 1879?
a) The Lewis and Clark Expedition reached the Pacific Ocean
b) Forty-niners headed to California for the gold rush
c) The American Civil War ended
d) The railroad reached Santa Fe

d) The railroad reached Santa Fe.
Read more

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What I Learned Section 2 -- Define the following words:
Adobe: Traditional southwestern bricks made of water, clay, and straw

Barter: To trade in an exchange of goods rather than for money

Caravan: Group of people or vehicles traveling together

Rendezvous: Meeting place

Republic: Form of government in which the people elect representatives who manage the government

Saddlebag: Covered pouch laid across the back of horse behind the saddle

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Bonus Questions (Answer 1 of the Following Questions for Your FREE Bookmark):
a. Who was Zebulon Pike?
The first American to explore the Santa Fe Trail in 1806.
Read more

b. Who were Charles and William Bent?
They were brothers, trappers, and traders who played an important role in the history of the Santa Fe Trail.
Read more

c. Describe ONE of the following people:
Lieutenant Zebulon Pike
William Becknell
Kit Carson
Josiah Gregg
Susan Magoffin
Stephen Watts Kearny
"Uncle Dick" Wootten
Answers may vary.
Read more

d. What year did Texas gain its independence?
1836.
Read more

e. What year did the Mexican War begin?
1846.
Read more

f. Name ONE of the American Indian tribes living along the Santa Fe Trail.
Pawnee, Arapaho, Comanche, Kiowa, Ute, and Jicarilla Apache.
Read more

g. Use five of the words in Section 2 in a sentence.
Answers may vary.
Read more

h. Have a parent or friend give you a spelling test with EACH of the words in Section 2.

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More Valuable Information about The Santa Fe Trail:
Santa Fe National Historic Trail (NPS)
Bent's Old Fort National Historic Site (NPS)
Santa Fe Trail Map (NPS)
Santa Fe Trail Association
Santa Fe Trail Center (Larned, Kansas)
Santa Fe Trail Links
Kaw Mission State Historic Site
Santa Fe Trail Map (Kaw Mission State Historic Site)

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The Oregon Trail (Cornerstones of Freedom)

More Information at Oregon Trail in Depth

What I Learned Section 1 -- Answer the Following Questions:
1. The Oregon Trail runs between which two locations?
a) Nashville and Natchez
b) Missouri and New Mexico
c) Missouri and Oregon
d) San Antonio and Abilene

c) Missouri and Oregon.
Read more

2. What year did Dr. Marcus Whitman travel the Oregon Trail?
1836.
Read more

3. How many miles was the Oregon Trail?
2,000 miles.
Read more

4. How many months did it take to travel the Oregon Trail in the 1840's?
About six months.
Read more

5. Describe how ONE of the following affected the wagon train's trip while traveling the Oregon Trail:
American Indians
Disease
Weather
Answers may vary.
Read more

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What I Learned Section 2 -- Define the following words:
Conestoga Wagons: Wagons used by families traveling the Oregon Trail; they were named after the Pennsylvania town where they were first built

Manifest Destiny: The belief of the United States that its people had a right to settle the entire North American continent from sea to sea

Missionaries: People who spread their religious beliefs

Mountain Men: White fur trappers living and exploring the Oregon Country in the early 1800's

Pioneers: First group of travelers who moved to the new land and made a new home

Teamsters: People who drove the wagons during the wagon train

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Bonus Questions (Answer 1 of the Following Questions for Your FREE Bookmark):
a. Describe the journey across the Oregon Trail made by Jesse Applegate's group in 1843.
Answers may vary.
Read more

b. Name ONE of the points or landmarks along the Oregon Trail.
Platte River, Fort Laramie, Sweetwater River, Independence Rock, Chimney Rock, The Continental Divide, South Pass, Soda Springs, Steamboat Springs, Fort Hall, Snake River, Columbia River, and Fort Walla Walla.
Read more

c. What does "Fifty-four forty or fight!" mean?
This referred to the 54°40' latitude line that the United States wanted as the northern border of Oregon.
Read more

d. Use five of the words in Section 2 in a sentence.
Answers may vary.
Read more

e. Have a parent or friend give you a spelling test with EACH of the words in Section 2.

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More Valuable Information about The Oregon Trail:
Oregon National Historic Trail (NPS)
Museum of Westward Expansion (NPS)
In Search of The Oregon Trail (PBS)
The Oregon Trail (Idaho State University)

Map of the Oregon Trail (Idaho State University)
Oregon Trail History Library (End of the Oregon Trail)
Diagram of a Prairie Schooner (End of the Oregon Trail)

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The Chisholm Trail (Cornerstones of Freedom)

More Information at Chisholm Trail in Depth

What I Learned Section 1 -- Answer the Following Questions:
1. The Chisholm Trail runs between which two locations?
a) Nashville and Natchez
b) Missouri and New Mexico
c) Missouri and Oregon
d) San Antonio and Abilene

d) San Antonio and Abilene. Read more

2. What was the reason for the first cattle drives in Texas in the 1830's?
a) Cowboys were looking for new markets to sell their cattle
b) The cattle pulled the wagon trains
c) As settlers built new towns, the cattle moved north to find abundant food
d) Texas was flooded in the 1830's, and the cattle moved to higher ground

a) Cowboys were looking for new markets to sell their cattle.
Read more

3. True or False: In 1860, there were more than 3,000,000 cattle in Texas.
True.
Read more

4. What year did the American Civil War end?
1865.
Read more

5. Name ONE of the cattle trails established after the Civil War.
The Chisholm Trail, the Goodnight-Loving Trail, the Kansas Trail, and the Shawnee Trail.
Read more

6. How many heads were in a cattle drive?
They could range from a few hundred heads to more than twelve thousand heads. Usually, there were two thousand to three thousand heads.
Read more

7. Who was Jesse Chisholm?
He was a trader who had driven his wagon up and down a trail from Wichita, Kansas, to the Washita River in Indian Territory (Oklahoma).
Read more

8. What year did the Chisholm Trail close?
1885.
Read more

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What I Learned Section 2 -- Define the following words:
Domesticate: To tame

Livestock: Horses, cattle, sheep, and other animals kept or raised on a farm or ranch

Ordinance: Law or regulation

Prairie: Mostly level, treeless area of land with fertile soil and covered with coarse grasses

Stampede: Sudden scattering of cattle or horses in fright

Stockyard: An enclosure with pens and sheds connected with a slaughterhouse or market for the temporary keeping of cattle, sheep, pigs, or horses

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Bonus Questions (Answer 1 of the Following Questions for Your FREE Bookmark):
a. Describe a typical cowboy.
Answers may vary.
Read more

b. Define ONE of the following people on a cattle drive:
Trail Boss: The leader of the cattle drive.
Read more
Cowboys: People who drove cattle. Read more
Cook: He drove the chuck wagon and fed the cowboys. Read more
Wrangler: He took care of the horse herd. Read more

c. Describe a typical day on the cattle drive.
Answers may vary.
Read more

d. Describe ONE of the factors leading to the end of the cattle drives on the Chisholm Trail.
Answers may vary.
Read more

e. Describe ONE of the ways cattle drives on the Chisholm Trail impacted the United States.
Answers may vary.
Read more

f. What are the words to "Home on the Range?"
Oh, give me a home where the buffalo roam,
Where the deer and the antelope play,
Where never is heard a discouraging word
And the sky is not clouded all day.
Read more

g. Use five of the words in Section 2 in a sentence.
Answers may vary.
Read more

h. Have a parent or friend give you a spelling test with EACH of the words in Section 2.

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More Valuable Information about The Chisholm Trail:
Chisholm Trail (Red River Authority of Texas)
Chisholm Trail Heritage Center Statue and Museum
Along the Chisholm Trail
Chisholm Trail Map
Diagram of Cattle Drive (Chisholm Trail Heritage Center)
Cody Cowhounds Kid's Pages (Chisholm Trail Heritage Center)

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Happy Learning!

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