Yellowstone National Parks (True Books)
What I Learned Section 1 -- Answer
the Following Questions:
1. Yellowstone National Park is located in which
of the following states?
d) All of the above
d) All of the above. Yellowstone National
Park is located mostly in Wyoming. It also spreads into Montana
to the north and west, and into Idaho to the west.
Before the 1800's, Native Americans hunted
and fished in the Yellowstone region. They also collected obsidian
to make arrowheads. Obsidian is a hard, black, volcanic rock.
In the early 1800's, white explorers came
to Yellowstone. They included John Colter, Jim Bridger, and Osborne
Russell. When the explorers returned with stories of Yellowstone's
beauty, people did not believe them. They thought the stories
were tall tales. Soon, settlers began visiting Yellowstone to
hunt, log, ranch, and mine.
On March 1, 1872, President Ulysses S.
Grant signed a bill making Yellowstone the world's first national
park. This protected the beauty, wildlife, and thermal wonders
Today, Yellowstone National Park protects
3,384 square miles (8,765 square kilometers) of mountains, valleys,
and wilderness land. It contains four types of park within its
boundaries. They are a thermal park, a wildlife park, a wilderness
park, and a historical park.
There are so many things visitors can do
at Yellowstone. They can view the thermal features, watch and
take pictures of the wildlife, hike, camp, fish, ride horses or
a stagecoach, tour the visitors' center, or become a Junior Ranger.
In the winter, Yellowstone is cold and
covered in snow. The bears are hibernating in their dens. The
bison, elk, and wolves are active. Some visitors explore the park
on cross-country skis.
2. What is magma?
The Earth's core of melted rock. Yellowstone has a thermal park.
Thermal means caused by heat. The Earth's core of melted rock
is called magma, and it lies closer to the Earth's surface at
Yellowstone than it does anywhere else in the world.
Thousands of years ago, magma surged up
through the cracks to the surface. The magma escaped in volcanic
eruptions. The volcanic eruptions created cone-shaped mountains
of lava, called volcanoes. Mount Washburn is an ancient volcano.
It is also the highest point in Yellowstone.
Did you know
when magma cools it becomes lava rock? Yellowstone has a lot of
Today, this same magma heats the water
creating Yellowstone's thermal features. These thermal feature
include geysers, fumaroles, mud pots, and hot springs.
3. Old Faithful is which
of the following thermal features?
c) Mud Pot
d) Hot Spring
a) Geyser. A geyser is a natural hot-water
fountain. Yellowstone has almost three hundred geysers. This is
more than anywhere else in the world.
Here's how a geyser is formed: Water trickles
into the ground and collects in pockets or channels. The water
is then heated by the magma layer. The warm water expands and
creates pressure. If the underground channel has a narrow spot,
the water below is under tremendous pressure. The pressure causes
the water to steam and boil up through the cracks in the surface.
When the hot water reaches the surface, it erupts into the air
and looks like a water volcano. This water volcano, or geyser,
eruption ends once enough pressure has been released. Then the
cycle begins again.
Did you know
Old Faithful erupts about every 78 minutes? Each eruption lasts
about three minutes and creates a 100 feet (30.5 meters) high
fountain. Old Faithful is the most famous attraction and geyser
at Yellowstone. Other geysers include Castle Geyser and Norris
The three other thermal features at Yellowstone
are fumaroles, mud pots, and hot springs.
Fumaroles are steam vents spewing gases
out of the ground. Fumaroles is a Latin word meaning "smoke."
Mud pots occur when thermal steam rises
through a mud puddle. It creates a bubbling, burping mud pot.
Did you know a mud pot colored
by minerals is called paint pot?
Hot springs are created when steam rises
through cold water and warms it. The lakes and streams of Yellowstone
are cold, and the steam creates hot springs. One of Yellowstone's
hot springs is called Rainbow Pool.
Algae and bacteria live in some hot springs
which tint the water orange, yellow, brown, or green. Grand Prismatic
Pool is a hot spring colored by algae and bacteria.
Some hot springs carry minerals to the
surface. Over time, these minerals harden, build up, and makes
terraces and steps. Mammoth Hot Springs is the largest of this
type of hot spring at Yellowstone.
4. Name ONE of the native
wild animals living in Yellowstone National Park.
Bison (or buffalo), pronghorn, elk, moose, gray wolves, black
bears, grizzly bears, ground squirrels, prairie dogs, chipmunks,
badgers, coyotes, foxes, hawks, owls, ravens, pelicans, wrens,
trumpeter swans, Montana grayling, and cutthroat trout.
Native means belonging to a certain place.
The native wild animals living in Yellowstone have been there
before the first Europeans arrived.
Bison is a giant, shaggy member of the
cattle family. Did you know
bison are usually mistakenly called buffalo? Bison were very important
to the Native Americans in the West. The Native Americans hunted
bison and used every part for food, clothing, and shelter. White
settlers came to the West and killed many bison. Today, Yellowstone
has one of the largest bison herds anywhere.
Pronghorns are the faster runners in America.
They eat in sagebrush flats. Pronghorns
look like antelope. However, antelope only live in Africa and
Elk are giant members of the deer family,
and Yellowstone has more elk than anywhere. In the fall, bull
(male) elk make a loud, whistling bugle call. Did
you know elk also mew like cats and chirp like birds?
Moose are the largest deer. Some moose
are as big as a horse. They like to browse on willow brush and
aquatic plants in Yellowstone's marshy areas. Aquatic means living
in or having to do with water.
By the mid-1920's, the gray wolves at Yellowstone
had been killed. In the mid-1990's, gray wolves were returned
Yellowstone has black bears and grizzly
bears. Did you know the color
of the black bears' fur can be brown, cinnamon, or blond? Black
bears eat meat, grass, wildflowers, and human food. Grizzly bears
are larger and fiercer than black bears. There are only a few
places in the United States where grizzlies live, and Yellowstone
is one of them. Did you know
the grizzly bear gets its name from the silvery or grizzled color
of its fur?
Yellowstone has smaller animals, like ground
squirrels, prairie dogs, and chipmunks. It also has animals that
prey on these smaller animals, like badgers, coyotes, foxes, hawks,
The birds of Yellowstone include blue-black
ravens, snow-white pelicans, tiny wrens, and giant trumpeter swans.
Yellowstone has lakes and streams filled
with fish. Two of these fish are the rare Montana grayling and
the cutthroat trout. Did you know
the cutthroat trout can only be found at Yellowstone?
5. True or False: The
Yellowstone River flows through Yellowstone Lake.
True. Yellowstone Lake was formed by glaciers sliding down from
the surrounding mountains. Did you know
glaciers are ancient rivers of ice? Yellowstone Lake is 20 miles
(32 kilometers) long and very deep. The Yellowstone River flows
through Yellowstone Lake.
Over thousands of years, Yellowstone River
carved a deep canyon through solid rock. This is called the Grand
Canyon of the Yellowstone. It is 1,500 feet (457 meters) deep.
There are two waterfalls within this canyon. They are called Upper
Yellowstone Falls and Lower Yellowstone Falls. They are the two
largest waterfalls within the park. Lower Yellowstone Falls is
as tall as a 31-story building, and Upper Yellowstone Falls is
as high as an 11-story building.
What I Learned Section 2 -- Define the
Algae: Very tiny plants that live in water
Bacteria: Tiny, one-celled organisms
Erosion: Slow wearing away of rock
or other material by water, wind, ice, and other natural forces
Minerals: Materials that make up
Petrified: Turned to Stone
Wilderness: Unspoiled place filled
with wild and natural landscapes, plants, and animals
Bonus Questions (Answer 1 of the
Following Questions for Your FREE
ONE of the features at Yellowstone National Park.
Mount Washburn, Old Faithful, Fountain Paint Pot, Rainbow Pool,
Grand Prismatic Pool, Morning Glory Pool, Mammoth Hot Springs,
Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone River, Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone,
Upper Yellowstone Falls, and Lower Yellowstone Falls.
Mount Washburn is an ancient volcano. A
volcano is a cone-shape mountain of lava. Mount Washburn is also
the highest point in Yellowstone.
Old Faithful is a geyser. It erupts about
every 78 minutes. Each eruption lasts about three minutes and
creates a 100 feet high fountain. Did
you know Old Faithful is the most famous attraction
and geyser at Yellowstone?
Fountain Paint Pot is a mud pot colored
by minerals. Mud pots occur when thermal steam rises through a
mud puddle. It creates a bubbling, burping mud pot.
Rainbow Pool is a hot spring. Hot springs
are created when steam rises through cold water and warms it.
The lakes and streams of Yellowstone are cold, and the steam creates
Grand Prismatic Pool is a hot spring colored
by algae and bacteria. Algae and bacteria live in some hot springs
and tint the water orange, yellow, brown, or green.
Mammoth Hot Springs is the largest hot
spring at Yellowstone which carries minerals to the surface. Over
time, these minerals harden, build up, and make terraces and steps.
Yellowstone Lake is 20 miles long and very
deep. It was formed by glaciers sliding down from the surrounding
Yellowstone River flows through Yellowstone
Lake. Over thousands of years, Yellowstone River carved a deep
canyon through solid rock. This is called the Grand Canyon of
There are two waterfalls within this Grand
Canyon of the Yellowstone. They are called Upper Yellowstone Falls
and Lower Yellowstone Falls. Did you
know they are the two largest waterfalls within the
b. What is a petrified
A forest whose trees turned to stone after being covered by ash
and mud from an erupting volcano.
In ancient times, volcanic eruptions buried
forests with ash and mud in Yellowstone. The ash and mud contained
minerals. The minerals were slowly absorbed by the trees, and
the trees turned to stone. This created petrified trees.
Erosion gradually wore away the soil surrounding
the stone trees which exposed Yellowstone's petrified forests.
Did you know erosion is the
slow wearing away of rock or other material by water, wind, ice,
and other natural forces?
c. True or False: Natural
fires help keep forests healthy.
True. Natural fires are started by
lightning rather than humans. These fires destroy the old, dead
timber and fertilize the soil with ash. Yellowstone has a policy
to let natural fires burn unless they endanger human life or property.
In 1988, Yellowstone had many wildfires.
These fires thinned the forests and created sunny new meadows
with grasses, wildflowers, and brush. This new vegetation provides
food for bison, elk, deer, and pronghorn which provides food for
wolves, bears, and coyotes.
d. Use five of the words
in Section 2 in a sentence.
Answers may vary. Here are sample sentences from our young readers:
There is algae and bacteria
in some hot springs at Yellowstone.
Bacteria are very tiny.
Erosion can create side canyons.
Rocks are made up of minerals.
There is a petrified forest
I like to go camping in the wilderness
with my family.
e. Have a parent or friend give you
a spelling test with EACH of the words in Section 2.
More Valuable Information about Yellowstone
National Park (NPS)
Faithful Geyser WebCam - Yellowstone National Park
Washburn WebCam - Yellowstone National Park
Geographic for Kids: Yellowstone