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2003:
Did you know the President of the United States is also known as the chief executive?
Yes. The president is the head of the executive branch and is known as the chief executive. The president serves a four-year term. In 1951, the XXII Amendment of the U.S. Constitution was ratified which states a person can only serve two terms as president. This is known as term limits.
>>Read about the President of the United States
>>Browse the US Presidents Books
>>Browse the First Ladies Books
>>Read about the U.S. Government

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September, 2003:
Did you know Galileo (the spacecraft) was named after Galileo (the astronomer)?
Yes. Galileo Galilei was an Italian astronomer who lived from 1564 to 1642. He discovered Jupiter's four largest moons in 1610. They are Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. Today, these moons are named after Galileo and are known as the Galilean moons.
Galileo's discovery of Jupiter's moons helped prove the Copernican theory that the earth revolves around the sun. People knew the moon revolved around the earth. They thought if the moon revolved around the earth, then the sun must also revolve around the earth. However, Galileo's discovery of four moons revolving around Jupiter proved one object in space can revolve around a second object in space while the second object revolves around a third object in space. To put it in a more simple way, it proved the moon can revolve around the earth while the earth revolves around the sun.
After Copernicus and Galileo, we know the earth revolves around the sun.
>>Read about Galileo Galilei
>>Read about the times in which Galileo lived
>>Browse our Galileo's Books
>>View Photos of Galileo
>>Visit the JPL Photo Gallery - Galileo

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August, 2003:
Did you know Rosa Parks has been called the "Mother of the Civil Rights Movement?"
Yes. The Civil Rights Movement helped make it illegal for people to discriminate against other people based on their race, color, religion, or nationality. Rosa Parks received many honors for her work in Civil Rights, including the Spingarn Medal, the Martin Luther King, Jr. Nonviolent Peace Prize, the Eleanor Roosevelt Woman of Courage Award, and the Presidential Medal of Freedom. Also, Cleveland Avenue in Montgomery, Alabama, (the street where Rosa boarded the bus on December 1, 1955) was renamed Rosa Parks Boulevard.
Did you know Rosa was a guest at the 1999 State of the Union Address and sat next to First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton? President Clinton introduced Rosa by saying, "She's sitting down with the First Lady tonight, and she may get up or not, as she chooses." Today, Rosa lives in Detroit, Michigan. February 4, 2003, marked Rosa Parks 90th Birthday.
>>Read about Rosa Parks
>>Visit Rosa Parks Links
>>Browse Rosa Parks Books
>>From Your Page: February, 2003

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July, 2003:
Did you know the Battle of Gettysburg is known as the High Tide of the Confederacy?
Yes. It was called the High Tide of the Confederacy because the Battle of Gettysburg was the closest the Confederate army came to defeating the Union army. If the Confederate army had won the battle, this victory may have led to a southern victory of the war. The Confederate defeat at Gettysburg was a turning point of the Civil War. Although the war continued for another two years, the Confederacy never had a better chance of winning the war than it did at Gettysburg.
The Battle of Gettysburg was fought from July 1 - 3, 1863, during the American Civil War. The Union Army of the Potomac was led by Major General George G. Meade, and the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia was led by General Robert E. Lee.
>>The Papa Tour stops at Gettysburg
>>Read about the Civil War
>>If You Lived at the Time of the Civil War

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June, 2003:
Did you know Anne Sullivan was Helen Keller's teacher?
Yes. Helen Adams Keller was born in Tuscumbia, Alabama, on June 27, 1880. She was born with full sight and hearing. When Helen was about 1-1/2 years old, she became sick with meningitis. Although Helen recovered from her illness, she lost her sight and hearing.
In 1887, Anne Sullivan became Helen's teacher. Anne taught Helen words using a finger alphabet. Anne passed Helen's hand under a water pump and spelled out the word "w-a-t-e-r." Helen understood and wanted to learn more. Helen then learned the word "teacher" which is what Helen called Anne. Helen continued to learn thousands of words.
>>Read about Helen Keller
>>Read about Anne Sullivan at White House Kids

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May, 2003:
Did you know President John F. Kennedy was born on May 29, 1917?
Yes. John F. Kennedy was born on May 29, 1917, in Brookline, Massachusetts. Today, his birthplace and boyhood home is the John F. Kennedy National Historic Site. Kennedy was elected President in 1960. He was the 35th President.
>>Visit the John F. Kennedy National Historic Site
>>Browse the John F. Kennedy Bookstore
>>View the John F. Kennedy Photos & Links
>>Browse the Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis Bookstore

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April, 2003:
Did you know Ulysses S. Grant's nickname was "Unconditional Surrender" Grant?
Yes. In February, 1862, Ulysses led the Union forces to victories at Forts Henry and Donelson in Tennessee. He earned the nickname "Unconditional Surrender" Grant at Fort Donelson when he stated to the surrendering General, "No terms except unconditional and immediate surrender can be accepted." Ulysses also won victories at Shiloh, Vicksburg, and Chattanooga.
>>Read about Ulysses S. Grant
>>Read about the times in which Ulysses S. Grant lived
>>Browse Ulysses S. Grant's Books
>>View Photos of Ulysses S. Grant

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March, 2003:
Did you know Robert F. Kennedy said Cesar Chavez was "one of the heroic figures of our time?"
Yes. Robert F. Kennedy supported Cesar Chavez and the migrant farm workers. When Cesar's 25-day fast ended on March 10, 1968, Cesar and Robert Kennedy attended mass in Delano park.
In July and August, 1988, Cesar again fasted. It was to protest the pesticide poisoning of grape workers and their children. It was called "Fast for Life," and it lasted 36 days.

>>Read about Cesar Chavez
>>Browse our Cesar Chavez' Books
>>View Photos of Cesar Chavez
>>Visit Cesar Chavez Links

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February, 2003:
Did you know Rosa Parks has been called the "Mother of the Civil Rights Movement?"
Yes. The Civil Rights Movement helped make it illegal for people to discriminate against other people based on their race, color, religion, or nationality. Rosa Parks received many honors for her work in Civil Rights, including the Spingarn Medal, the Martin Luther King, Jr. Nonviolent Peace Prize, the Eleanor Roosevelt Woman of Courage Award, and the Presidential Medal of Freedom. Also, Cleveland Avenue in Montgomery, Alabama, (the street where Rosa boarded the bus on December 1, 1955) was renamed Rosa Parks Boulevard.
Did you know Rosa was a guest at the 1999 State of the Union Address and sat next to First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton? President Clinton introduced Rosa by saying, "She's sitting down with the First Lady tonight, and she may get up or not, as she chooses." Today, Rosa lives in Detroit, Michigan. February 4, 2003, marks Rosa Parks 90th Birthday.

>>Read about Rosa Parks
>>Visit Rosa Parks' Links
>>Browse Rosa Parks' Books

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January, 2003:
Did you know Robert E. Lee led a unit of U.S. Marines to capture John Brown in 1859?
Yes. John Brown was an abolitionist which meant he wanted to end slavery. Brown believed if he provided guns to slaves, the slaves would rebel against the slave owners. In 1859, Brown raided the U.S. arsenal at Harpers Ferry looking for guns. This was known as the John Brown Raid. Robert E. Lee led the U.S. Marine unit which captured Brown. Did you know Harpers Ferry was located in Virginia at the time of the John Brown Raid? Today, Harpers Ferry is located in West Virginia.
>>Read about the PAPA WAS A BOY IN GRAY Book Tour
>>Read PAPA Report #19 -- Dispatches from North Elba
>>Browse the PAPA WAS A BOY IN GRAY Bookstore

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