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2003 | Apr-Dec, 2002 | Jan-Mar, 2002 | Sep-Dec, 2001 | Jun-Aug, 2001 | Feb-May, 2001

 

 
December, 2002:
Q: The first Olympic Winter Games were held in 1924. When did ice skating first appear in the Olympic Games?
A: In 1908. Wait a minute! You may be asking, "If the Olympic Winter Games did not occur until 1924, how could ice skating be an Olympic event in 1908?" Here's how: When the Modern Olympic Games were first held in Athens, Greece, in 1896, there were no Olympic Winter Games. Ice skating was introduced in the 1908 London Games. The introduction of ice skating in 1908, and the introduction of ice hockey in 1920, led to the creation of a separate Olympic Winter Games in 1924.
>>Browse the Olympic Games Bookstore
>>More Olympic Games Links

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November, 2002:
Q: What year did President Abraham Lincoln deliver the Gettysburg Address?
A: 1863. In July, 1863, the Union and Confederate armies fought a battle in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. After the battle, the United States established a National Cemetery to honor the brave men who had fought and died at Gettysburg. On November 19, 1863, Abe gave a speech to dedicate the cemetery. The speech lasted less than two minutes and became Abe's most famous speech. The speech is known as the Gettysburg Address and is engraved in the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C.
>>Read the entire Gettysburg Address
>>Read about Abe Lincoln
>>Read about the times in which Abe Lincoln lived
>>Browse Abe Lincoln's Books
>>View Photos of Abe Lincoln

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October, 2002:
Q: What was the name of the world's first artificial satellite?
A: Sputnik I. On October 4, 1957, the Soviet Union successfully launched Sputnik I. This event changed history. It marked the start of the space age and the beginning of the space race between the United States and the Soviet Union (U.S.S.R.) Did you know Sputnik I was about the size of a basketball and weighed 183 pounds? Sputnik I orbited the Earth in 98 minutes.
>>Sputnik Home Page (NASA)
>>Chronology of Sputnik (NASA)
>>Sputnik Photo Gallery (NASA)

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September, 2002:
Q: During the Battle of Antietam, who commanded the Union Army of the Potomac and who commanded the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia?
A: George B. McClellan commanded the Union Army of the Potomac, and Robert E. Lee commanded the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia. In September, 1862, Robert E. Lee led his army into northern territory for the first time during the Civil War. Lee's army met McClellan's army on September 17 at Sharpsburg, Maryland. The Union Army (87,000 troops) outnumbered the Confederate Army (40,000 troops) by more than 2-to-1. The battle was tactically a draw. The next day, Lee's army withdrew into Virginia, and the Union claimed Antietam as a victory. Five days later, President Abraham Lincoln used this victory to issue a Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation.
>>Read about Robert E. Lee
>>Read about Abraham Lincoln
>>Read about the Army of the Potomac Leaders
>>Read about the Army of Northern Virginia Leaders

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August, 2002:
Q:
For which of the following inventions did Thomas Alva Edison receive his first patent?
a) Light Bulb
b)
Electrical Vote Recorder
c)
Edison Universal Stock Ticker
d)
Phonograph
A: b) Electrical Vote Recorder. Thomas Alva Edison received his first patent for the Electrical Vote Recorder in 1868. It allowed votes to be recorded automatically, sped up the voting process, and prevented errors in counting the votes. Although the U.S. Congress decided not to use Alva's invention, the machine was first used by the New York State Legislature in 1892.
>>Read about the Electrical Vote Recorder
>>Read about Thomas Alva Edison
>>Read about the times in which Thomas Alva Edison lived
>>Browse Alva's Bookstore
>>From Your Page: February 11, 2002

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July, 2002:
Q: When was the battle of Gettysburg fought?
A: July 1 - 3, 1863. In the summer of 1863, Confederate General Robert E. Lee led his troops into Northern territory. Lee's Army met the Union Army at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. The Union Army was led by General George G. Meade. The two sides fought for three days from July 1 to July 3, 1863. The Union won the battle. Did you know the Battle of Gettysburg is known as the High Tide of the Confederacy? Yes, it was the closest the Confederacy came to defeating the Union Army.
>>View photos of Robert E. Lee
>>View photos of Abe Lincoln
>>View photos of Ulysses S. Grant
>>Read PAPA Report #9
>>Read about the PAPA WAS A BOY IN GRAY Book Tour

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June, 2002:
Q: How many stars and stripes does the U.S. flag have today?
A: 50 stars and 13 stripes. Since 1960, the U.S. flag contains 50 white stars on a field of blue and 13 red and white stripes (7 red stripes and 6 white stripes). The 50 stars represent the 50 states of the U.S., and the 13 stripes represent the 13 original colonies. The fifty-star flag is the twenty-seventh official flag of the United States since the first Flag Law of 1777.
Did you know Alaska and Hawaii became states in 1959, making them the last two states to join the Union?
>>Read about the American Flag
>>The American Flag is featured in our American Symbols Reading Program

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May, 2002:
Q: When was Florence Nightingale born? (month, date, and year)
A: May 12, 1820. Florence Nightingale was born on May 12, 1820, in Florence, Italy. She was named Florence after her city of birth. Florence's sister was born in Naples and is named Parthenope. Parthenope is the Greek name for Naples.
>>Read about Florence Nightingale
>>Read about the times in which Florence Nightingale lived
>>Browse Florence Nightingale's Bookstore
>>View photos of Florence Nightingale

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April 29, 2002:
Q: What was the name of Alan Shepard's Mercury Spacecraft?
A: Freedom 7.
Freedom 7 was also referred to as Mercury-Redstone 3 or MR-3. Mercury was the name of the mission, and Redstone was the name of the rocket. The Redstone rockets were used on the first two Mercury-manned missions which flew suborbital flights. The third Mercury-manned mission used the Atlas rocket, and it was the first time an American orbited the earth. Did you know the Astronaut for the first orbital flight was John Glenn?
Freedom 7 was a one-manned spacecraft weighing about 3,000 pounds. Unlike the Soviet spacecraft, the Mercury spacecraft could be manually controlled by the astronaut. On May 5, 1961, at 9:34 a.m. EST from Cape Canaveral, Florida, Alan Shepard was launched aboard Freedom 7 by a Redstone rocket. Freedom 7 reached a top speed of 5,134 miles per hour. Shepard's flight was a suborbital flight (meaning it did not orbit the earth) and lasted 15 minutes and 28 seconds. Freedom 7 splashed-down 302 statute miles downrange from Cape Canaveral in the Atlantic Ocean. It was recovered by a helicopter and brought aboard the aircraft carrier Lake Champlain. Did you know space begins at an altitude of 100 miles? Shepard's flight reached an altitude of 116.5 statute miles.
Three weeks later, on May 25, 1961, President John F. Kennedy delivered a Special Message to Congress declaring, "I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to the earth."
Did you know Alan Shepard was slated to fly a second Mercury mission in 1963? However, this mission was canceled because NASA determined Project Mercury had met its goals, and NASA moved on to Project Gemini, the two-manned missions. Shepard began training for the first Gemini flight. Unfortunately, in 1964, Shepard was diagnosed with an inner ear condition which grounded him. He continued to work for NASA, and was the Chief of the Astronaut Office. In 1969, Shepard had an operation to fix his ear problem, and he was restored to full flight status.
>>Visit Alan Shepard's Photos & Links
>>Visit our NASA & Space Links
>>Browse our Extended Space Bookstore
Photo Credits: NASA

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April 22, 2002:
Q: Name one of the three cities which hosted the Olympic Winter Games twice.
A: St. Moritz, Lake Placid, and Innsbruck. St. Moritz, Switzerland, hosted the 1928 and 1948 Olympic Winter Games. Lake Placid, United States, hosted the 1932 and 1980 Olympic Winter Games. Innsbruck, Austria, hosted the 1964 and 1976 Olympic Winter Games. Did you know the 2006 Olympic Winter Games will be hosted by Torino, Italy? It will be the XX Olympic Winter Games.
>>Discover the XIX Olympic Winter Games "Your Page"
>>Discover the XIX Olympic Winter Games Wrap Up "Your Page"
>>Browse the Olympic Games Bookstore
>>More Olympic Games Links

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April 15, 2002:
Q: When were the Battles of Lexington and Concord fought? (month, date, and year)
A: April 19, 1775. At dawn on April 19, about 700 British Redcoats led by Lieutenant Colonel Francis Smith and Major John Pitcairn arrived in Lexington. They were met by about 70 warned-and-waiting colonial militia led by Captain John Parker on the Lexington Green (the town common). A shot rang out. Although it is unknown who fired this shot, the British opened fired on the colonialists, and the colonialists returned the fire. The battle and the American Revolution had begun. The British continued toward Concord, further to the west. They were turned back at Concord's North Bridge and retreated to Boston.
>>Visit Minute Man National Historical Park
>>Take a Tour of Minute Man National Historical Park
>>Read about the American Revolution
>>Browse the American Revolution Bookstore

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April 8, 2002:
Q: What was the name of the house where Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant?
A: The McLean House. The McLean House was owned by Wilmer McLean. Did you know it has been said the Civil War began in Wilmer McLean's back yard and ended in his front parlor? Yes, at the beginning of the Civil War, McLean lived in Manassas, Virginia. The Battle of Bull Run, in July, 1861, was the first major battle of the Civil War, and part of this battle was fought on McLean's property. McLean moved to Appomattox Court House to get away from the fighting. Then in April, 1865, the Armies met in Appomattox Court House, and the Confederate Army surrendered in McLean's front parlor.
>>Read about Robert E. Lee
>>Read about Ulysses S. Grant
>>Read about the Civil War
>>Read about the McLean House

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April 1, 2002:
Q: What year did Mahatma Gandhi lead the Salt March?
A: 1930. At this time, India was under British rule. Mahatma Gandhi led nonviolent protests to end the British rule and gain self-government for India. As a way to tax the Indians, Britain passed a Salt Law which did not allow Indians to make their own salt. In 1930, Gandhi led a 250-mile march to the sea to make salt as a form of nonviolent protest. Did you know it took more than 24 days to complete the journey?
>>View Photos & Links of Mahatma Gandhi

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